Reference: advanced functions
Access these functions by checking Show Advanced in the Functions dropdown list.
Table Functions versus Row Functions section_8977BE40A47E4ED79EB543A9703A4905
A table function is one where the output is the same for every row of the table. A row function is one where the output is different for every row of the table.
What does the IncludeZeros parameter mean? section_C7A2B05929584C65B308FD372CB8E8E3
It tells whether to include zeros in the computation. Sometimes zero means “nothing”, but sometimes it’s important.
For example, if you have a Revenue metric, and then add a Page Views metric to the report, there are suddenly more rows for your revenue which are all zero. You probably don’t want this to affect any MEAN, MIN, QUARTILE, etc. calculations that you have on the revenue column. In this case, you would check the includezeros parameter.
On the other hand, if you have two metrics that you are interested in, it may not be fair to say that one has a higher average or minimum because some of its rows were zeros, so you would not check the parameter to include the zeros.
AND concept_E14513FE464F4491AD0D4130D4EE621C
Returns the value of its argument. Use NOT to make sure that a value is not equal to one particular value.
AND(logical_test1,[logical_test2],...)
Approximate Count Distinct (dimension) concept_000776E4FA66461EBA79910B7558D5D7
Returns the approximated distinct count of dimension items for the selected dimension. The function uses the HyperLogLog (HLL) method of approximating distinct counts. It is configured to guarantee the value is within 5% of the actual value 95% of the time.
Approximate Count Distinct (dimension)
Example Use Case section_424E3FC5092948F0A9D655F6CCBA0312
Approximate Count Distinct (customer ID eVar) is a common use case for this function.
Definition for a new ‘Approximate Customers’ calculated metric:
This is how the “Approximate Customers” metric could be used in reporting:
Uniques Exceeded section_9C583858A9F94FF7BA054D1043194BAA
Like Count() and RowCount(), Approximate Count Distinct() is subject to “uniques exceeded” limits. If the “uniques exceeded” limit is reached within a particular month for a dimension, the value is counted as 1 dimension item.
Comparing Count Functions section_440FB8FB44374459B2C6AE2DA504FC0B
Approximate Count Distinct() is an improvement over Count() and RowCount() functions because the metric created can be used in any dimensional report to render an approximated count of items for a separate dimension. For example, a count of customer IDs used in a Mobile Device Type report.
This function will be marginally less accurate than Count() and RowCount() because it uses the HLL method, whereas Count() and RowCount() are exact counts.
Arc Cosine (Row) concept_1DA3404F3DDE4C6BAF3DBDD655D79C7B
Returns the arccosine, or inverse of the cosine, of a metric. The arccosine is the angle whose cosine is number. The returned angle is given in radians in the range 0 (zero) to pi. If you want to convert the result from radians to degrees, multiply it by 180/PI( ).
ACOS(metric)
Arc Sine (Row) concept_90F00DEC46BA47F8A21493647D9668CD
Returns the arcsine, or inverse sine, of a number. The arcsine is the angle whose sine is number. The returned angle is given in radians in the range pi/2 to pi/2. To express the arcsine in degrees, multiply the result by 180/PI( ).
ASIN(metric)
Arc Tangent (Row) concept_3408520673774A10998E9BD8B909E90C
Returns the arctangent, or inverse tangent, of a number. The arctangent is the angle whose tangent is number. The returned angle is given in radians in the range pi/2 to pi/2. To express the arctangent in degrees, multiply the result by 180/PI( ).
ATAN(metric)
Exponential Regression: Predicted Y (Row) concept_25615693312B4A7AB09A2921083502AD
Calculates the predicted yvalues (metric_Y), given the known xvalues (metric_X) using the “least squares” method for calculating the line of best fit based on .
ESTIMATE.EXP(metric_X, metric_Y)
CdfT concept_4E2F2673532A48B5AF786521DE428A66
Returns the percentage of values in a student’s tdistribution with n degrees of freedom that have a zscore less than x.
cdf_t( ∞, n ) = 0
cdf_t( ∞, n ) = 1
cdf_t( 3, 5 ) ? 0.99865
cdf_t( 2, 7 ) ? 0.0227501
cdf_t( x, ∞ ) ? cdf_z( x )
CdfZ concept_99C97ACC40A94FADBCF7393A17BC2D12
Returns the percentage of values in a normal distribution that have a zscore less than x.
cdf_z( ∞ ) = 0
cdf_z( ∞ ) = 1
cdf_z( 0 ) = 0.5
cdf_z( 2 ) ? 0.97725
cdf_z( 3 ) ? 0.0013499
Ceiling (Row) concept_A14CDB1E419B4AA18D335E5BA2548346
Returns the smallest integer not less than a given value. For example, if you want to avoid reporting currency decimals for revenue and a product has $569.34, use the formula CEILING( Revenue) to round revenue up to the nearest dollar, or $570.
CEILING(metric)
Cosine (Row) concept_DD07AA1FB08145DC89B69D704545FD0A
Returns the cosine of the given angle. If the angle is in degrees, multiply the angle by PI( )/180.
COS(metric)
Cube Root concept_BD93EFA45DF7447A8F839E1CA5B5F795
Returns the positive cube root of a number. The cube root of a number is the value of that number raised to the power of 1/3.
CBRT(metric)
Cumulative concept_3D3347797B6344CE88B394C3E39318ED
Returns the sum of x for the last N rows (as ordered by the dimension, using hash values for string based fields).
If N <= 0 it uses all previous rows. Since it’s ordered by the dimension it’s only useful on dimensions that have a natural order like date or path length.
 Date  Rev  cumul(0,Rev)  cumul(2,Rev) 
+++
 May  $500  $500  $500 
 June  $200  $700  $700 
 July  $400  $1100  $600 
Cumulative Average concept_ABB650962DC64FD58A79C305282D3E61
Returns the average of the last N rows.
If N <= 0 it uses all previous rows. Since it’s ordered by the dimension it’s only useful on dimensions that have a natural order like date or path length.
cumul(revenue)/cumul(visitor)
Equal concept_A3B97152B5F74E04A97018B35734BEEB
Returns items that match exactly for a numeric or string value.
Exponential Regression_ Correlation Coefficient (Table) concept_C18BBFA43C1A499293290DF49566D8D8
Returns the correlation coefficient, r, between two metric columns ( metric_A and metric_B) for the regression equation .
CORREL.EXP(metric_X, metric_Y)
Exponential Regression: Intercept (Table) concept_0047206C827841AD936A3BE58EEE1514
Returns the intercept, b, between two metric columns ( metric_X and metric_Y) for
INTERCEPT.EXP(metric_X, metric_Y)
Exponential Regression: Slope (Table) concept_230991B0371E44308C52853EFA656F04
Returns the slope, a, between two metric columns ( metric_X and metric_Y) for .
SLOPE.EXP(metric_X, metric_Y)
Floor (Row) concept_D368150EC3684077B284EE471463FC31
Returns the largest integer not greater than a given value. For example, if you want to avoid reporting currency decimals for revenue and a product has $569.34, use the formula FLOOR( Revenue) to round revenue down to the nearest dollar, or $569.
FLOOR(metric)
Greater Than concept_A83734A0C0C14646B76D2CC5E677C644
Returns items whose numeric count is greater than the value entered.
Greater Than or Equal concept_8CA6DF1F84784D50849BF1C566AE1D37
Returns items whose numeric count is greater than or equal to the value entered.
Hyperbolic Cosine (Row) concept_79DD5681CE9640BDBA3C3F527343CA98
Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number.
COSH(metric)
Hyperbolic Sine (Row) concept_96230731600C45E3A4E823FE155ABA85
Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number.
SINH(metric)
Hyperbolic Tangent (Row) concept_BD249013732F462B9863629D142BCA6A
Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number.
TANH(metric)
IF (Row) concept_6BF0F3EAF3EF42C288AEC9A79806C48E
The IF function returns one value if a condition you specify evaluates to TRUE, and another value if that condition evaluates to FALSE.
IF(logical_test, [value_if_true], [value_if_false])
Less Than concept_A4A85C0FDF944AACAD4B8B55699D1B11
Returns items whose numeric count is less than the value entered.
Less Than or Equal concept_99D12154DE4848B1B0A6327C4322D288
Returns items whose numeric count is less than or equal to the value entered.
Linear regression_ Correlation Coefficient concept_132AC6B3A55248AA9C002C1FBEB55C60
Y = a X + b. Returns the correlation coefficient
Linear regression_ Intercept concept_E44A8D78B802442DB855A07609FC7E99
Y = a X + b. Returns b.
Linear regression_ Predicted Y concept_9612B9BF106D4D278648D2DF92E98EFC
Y = a X + b. Returns Y.
Linear regression_ Slope concept_12352982082A4DDF824366B073B4C213
Y = a X + b. Returns a.
Log Base 10 (Row) concept_4C65DF9659164261BE52AA5A95FD6BC1
Returns the base10 logarithm of a number.
LOG10(metric)
Log regression: Correlation coefficient (Table) concept_F3EB35016B754E74BE41766E46FDC246
Returns the correlation coefficient, r, between two metric columns (metric_X and metric_Y) for the regression equation Y = a ln(X) + b. It is calculated using the CORREL equation.
CORREL.LOG(metric_X,metric_Y)
Log regression: Intercept (Table) concept_75A3282EDF54417897063DC26D4FA363
Returns the intercept b as the least squares regression between two metric columns (metric_X and metric_Y) for the regression equation Y = a ln(X) + b. It is calculated using the INTERCEPT equation.
INTERCEPT.LOG(metric_X, metric_Y)
Log Regression: Predicted Y (Row) concept_5F3A9263BBB84E6098160A4DFB9E3607
Calculates the predicted y values (metric_Y), given the known x values (metric_X) using the “least squares” method for calculating the line of best fit based on Y = a ln(X) + b. It is calculated using the ESTIMATE equation.
In regression analysis, this function calculates the predicted y values (metric_Y), given the known x values (metric_X) using the logarithm for calculating the line of best fit for the regression equation Y = a ln(X) + b. The a values correspond to each x value, and b is a constant value.
ESTIMATE.LOG(metric_X, metric_Y)
Log regression: Slope (Table) concept_B291EFBE121446A6B3B07B262BBD4EF2
Returns the slope, a, between two metric columns (metric_X and metric_Y) for the regression equation Y = a ln(X) + b. It is calculated using the SLOPE equation.
SLOPE.LOG(metric_A, metric_B)
Natural Log concept_D3BE148A9B84412F8CA61734EB35FF9E
Returns the natural logarithm of a number. Natural logarithms are based on the constant e (2.71828182845904). LN is the inverse of the EXP function.
LN(metric)
NOT concept_BD954C455A8148A3904A301EC4DC821E
Returns 1 if the number is 0 or returns 0 if another number.
NOT(logical)
Using NOT requires knowing if the expressions (<, >, =, <> , etc.) return 0 or 1 values.
Not equal concept_EC010B7A9D2049099114A382D662FC16
Returns all items that do not contain the exact match of the value entered.
Or (Row) concept_AF81A33A376C4849A4C14F3A380639D2
Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE, or returns FALSE if all arguments are FALSE.
OR(logical_test1,[logical_test2],...)
Pi concept_41258789660D4A33B5FB86228F12ED9C
Returns the constant PI, 3.14159265358979, accurate to 15 digits.
PI()
The PIfunction has no arguments.
Power regression: Correlation coefficient (Table) concept_91EC2CFB5433494F9E0F4FDD66C63766
Returns the correlation coefficient, r, between two metric columns (metric_X and metric_Y) for Y = b*X.
CORREL.POWER(metric_X, metric_Y)
Power regression: Intercept (Table) concept_7781C85597D64D578E19B212BDD1764F
Returns the intercept, b, between two metric columns (metric_X and metric_Y) for Y = b*X.
INTERCEPT.POWER(metric_X, metric_Y)
Power regression: Predicted Y (Row) concept_CD652C0A921D4EFBA8F180CB8E486B18
Calculates the predicted y values ( metric_Y), given the known x values ( metric_X) using the “least squares” method for calculating the line of best fit for Y = b*X.
ESTIMATE.POWER(metric_X, metric_Y)
Power regression: Slope (Table) concept_5B9E71B989234694BEB5EEF29148766C
Returns the slope, a, between two metric columns (metric_X and metric_Y) for Y = b*X.
SLOPE.POWER(metric_X, metric_Y)
Quadratic regression: Correlation coefficient (Table) concept_9C9101A456B541E69BA29FCEAC8CD917
Returns the correlation coefficient, r, between two metric columns (metric_X and metric_Y) for Y=(a X+b)***.
CORREL.QUADRATIC(metric_X, metric_Y)
Quadratic regression: Intercept (Table) concept_69DC0FD6D38C40E9876F1FD08EC0E4DE
Returns the intercept, b, between two metric columns (metric_X and metric_Y) for Y=(a X+b)***.
INTERCEPT.POWER(metric_X, metric_Y)
Quadratic regression: Predicted Y (Row) concept_2F1ED70B1BDE4664A61CC09D30C39CBB
Calculates the predicted y values (metric_Y), given the known x values (metric_X) using the least squares method for calculating the line of best fit using Y=(a X+b)*** .
ESTIMATE.QUADRATIC(metric_A, metric_B)
Quadratic regression: Slope (Table) concept_0023321DA8E84E6D9BCB06883CA41645
Returns the slope, a, between two metric columns (metric_X and metric_Y) for Y=(a X+b)***.
SLOPE.QUADRATIC(metric_X, metric_Y)
Reciprocal regression: Correlation coefficient (Table) concept_EBEC509A19164B8AB2DBDED62F4BA2A5
Returns the correlation coefficient, r, between two metric columns (metric_X) and metric_Y) for Y = a/X+b.
CORREL.RECIPROCAL(metric_X, metric_Y)
Reciprocal regression: Intercept (Table) concept_2DA45B5C69F140EC987649D2C88F19B3
Returns the intercept, b, between two metric columns (metric_X and metric_Y) for Y = a/X+b.
INTERCEPT.RECIPROCAL(metric_A, metric_B)
Reciprocal regression: Predicted Y (Row) concept_2CF4B8F417A84FE98050FE488E227DF8
Calculates the predicted y values (metric_Y), given the known x values (metric_X) using the least squares method for calculating the line of best fit using Y = a/X+b.
ESTIMATE.RECIPROCAL(metric_X, metric_Y)
Reciprocal regression: Slope (Table) concept_8A8B68C9728E42A6BFDC6BD5CBDCCEC5
Returns the slope, a, between two metric columns (metric_X and metric_Y) for Y = a/X+b.
SLOPE.RECIPROCAL(metric_X, metric_Y)
Sine (Row) concept_21C8C3AA835947A28B53A4E756A7451E
Returns the sine of the given angle. If the angle is in degrees, multiply the angle by PI( )/180.
SIN(metric)
TScore concept_80D2B4CED3D0426896B2412B4FC73BF7
Alias for ZScore, namely the deviation from the mean divided by the standard deviation
TTest concept_A1F78F4A765348E38DBCAD2E8F638EB5
Performs an mtailed ttest with tscore of col and n degrees of freedom.
The signature is t_test( x, n, m )
. Underneath, it simply calls m*cdf_t(abs(x),n)
. (This is similar to the ztest function which runs m*cdf_z(abs(x))
.
Here, m
is the number of tails, and n
is the degrees of freedom. These should be numbers (constant for the whole report, i.e. not changing on a row by row basis).
X
is the ttest statistic, and would often be a formula (e.g. zscore) based on a metric and will be evaluated on every row.
The return value is the probability of seeing the test statistic x given the degrees of freedom and number of tails.
Examples:

Use it to find outliers:
code languagenone t_test( zscore(bouncerate), rowcount1, 2)

Combine it with
if
to ignore very high or low bounce rates, and count visits on everything else:code languagenone if ( t_test( zscore(bouncerate), rowcount, 2) < 0.01, 0, visits )
Tangent concept_C25E00CB17054263AB0460D9EF94A700
Returns the tangent of the given angle. If the angle is in degrees, multiply the angle by PI( )/180.
TAN (metric)
ZScore (Row) concept_96BEAC79476C49B899DB7E193A5E7ADD
Returns the Zscore, or normal score, based upon a normal distribution. The Zscore is the number of standard deviations an observation is from the mean. A Zscore of 0 (zero) means the score is the same as the mean. A Zscore can be positive or negative, indicating whether it is above or below the mean and by how many standard deviations.
The equation for Zscore is:
where x is the raw score, μ is the mean of the population, and σ is the standard deviation of the population.
Zscore(metric)
ZTest concept_2A4ADD6B3AEB4A2E8465F527FAFC4C23
Performs an ntailed Ztest with Zscore of A.
Returns the probability that the current row could be seen by chance in the column.