Create a data migration plan

To migrate successfully and avoid issues, you need to thoroughly plan and test your migration.

Before you start: Consider upgrade

Migration is a perfect moment to make serious changes and get your site ready for the next level of growth. Consider whether your new site needs to be designed with more hardware or a more advanced topology with better caching tiers.

Step 1: Review extensions on your current site

  • What extensions have you installed?

  • Have you identified if you need all these extensions on your new site? There might be old ones you can safely remove.

  • Have you determined if Magento 2 versions of your extensions exist? Visit Commerce Marketplace to find the latest versions or contact your extension provider.

  • What database assets from your extensions do you want to migrate?

Step 2: Build and prepare your store for migration

  • Set up a Magento 2 hardware system using topology and design that at least matches your existing Magento 1 system

  • Install Magento 2.x (with all modules of this release) and the Data Migration Tool on a system that meets the system requirements

  • Make your custom adjustments to the Data Migration Tool code in case you do not need to migrate some data (like CMS Pages, Sales Rules) or want to convert your Magento customization during migration. Read the Data Migration Tool’s Technical Specification to better understand how migration works from inside

Step 3: Dry run

Before you start migration on the production environment, it would be best to go through all the migration steps on your testing environment.

In such migration testing, follow these steps:

  • Copy your Magento 1 store to a staging server

  • Fully migrate the replicated Magento 1 store to Magento 2

  • Thoroughly test your new store

Step 4: Start your migration

  1. Make sure that the Data Migration Tool has a network access to connect to Magento 1 and Magento 2 databases. Open the corresponding ports in your firewall.

  2. Stop all activities in the Magento 1.x Admin Panel (except for order management), such as shipping, creating invoices and credit memos. The list of allowed activities can be extended by adjusting settings of the Delta mode in the Data Migration Tool.

    note note
    You must not resume these activities until your Magento 2 store goes live.
  3. We recommend stopping all Magento 1.x cron jobs.

    Still, if some jobs are required to run during migration, make sure they do not create new database entities or change the existing ones in the way that such entities cannot be processed by the Delta mode.

    For example, the enterprise_salesarchive_archive_orders cron job moves old orders to archive. Running this job during migration is safe because the Delta mode recognizes this job and properly processes the archived orders.

  4. Use the Data Migration Tool to migrate settings and websites.

  5. Copy your Magento 1.x media files to Magento 2.x.

    You must copy these files manually from the magento1-root/media directory to magento2-root/pub/media.

  6. Use the Data Migration Tool to bulk copy your data from Magento 1 database to Magento 2 database.

    If some of your extensions have data you want to migrate, you might need to install these extensions adapted for Magento 2. In case the extensions have a different structure in Magento 2 database, use the mapping files provided with the Data Migration Tool.

  7. Reindex all Magento 2.x indexers. For details, see the Manage indexers in the Configuration guide.

Step 5: Make changes to the migrated data (if needed)

Sometimes you may want to have your Magento 2 store with different catalog structure, sales rules, and CMS pages after migration.

It is important to practice caution while working through manual data changes. Mistakes create errors in the incremental data migration step that follows.

For example, a product deleted from Magento 2: the one that has been bought on your live Magento 1 store and which is not available anymore in your Magento 2 store. Transferring data about such purchase might cause an error while running the Data Migration Tool in Delta mode.

Step 6: Update incremental data

After migrating data, you must incrementally capture data updates that have been added in the Magento 1 store (such as new orders, reviews, and changes in customer profiles) and transfer these updates to the Magento 2 store using the Delta mode.

  • Start the incremental migration; updates run continually. You can stop transferring updates at any time by pressing Ctrl+C.

  • Test your Magento 2 site during this time to catch any issues as soon as possible. If you encounter issues, press Ctrl+C to stop incremental migration and start it again after you resolve the issues.

Volume check warnings may appear in case you conduct testing of your Magento 2 site and run migration process at the same time. It happens because in Magento 2 you create entities that do not exist in Magento 1 instance.

Step 7: Go live

Now that your Magento 2 site is up-to-date with Magento 1 and is functioning normally, do the following to cut over to the new site:

  1. Put your Magento 1 system in maintenance mode (DOWNTIME STARTS).

  2. Press Control+C in the migration tool command window to stop incremental updates.

  3. Start your Magento 2 cron jobs.

  4. In your Magento 2 system, reindex the stock indexer. For more information, see the [Configuration guide].

  5. Using a tool of your choice, hit pages in your Magento 2 system to cache pages before customers who use your storefront.

  6. Perform any final verification of your Magento 2 site.

  7. Change DNS, load balancers, and so on to point to new production hardware (DOWNTIME ENDS).

  8. Magento 2 store is now ready to use. You and your customers can resume all activities.