Monitoring and maintaining your Adobe Experience Manager instance monitoring-and-maintaining-your-aem-instance

After your AEM instances are deployed, you must monitor and maintain their operation, performance, and integrity.

A key factor here is that to recognize potential issues, you must know how your system looks and behaves under normal conditions. This ability is best done by monitoring the system and collecting information over time.

Comment / Actions
Backup plan.
See how to Back up your Instance.
Disaster recovery plan.
Your company’s disaster recovery guidelines.
An error tracking system is available for reporting problems.
For example, Bugzilla, Jira, or one of many others.
File systems are being monitored.
The CRX repository “freezes” if there is insufficient free disk space. It resumes after space becomes available.
" *ERROR* LowDiskSpaceBlocker" messages can be seen in the log file when free space becomes low.
Log files are being monitored.
System monitoring is (constantly) running in the background.
Including CPU, memory, disk and network usage. Using for example, iostat / vmstat / perfmon.
Logged data is visualized and can be used for tracking performance problems. Raw data is also accessible.
AEM performance is being monitored.
Including Request Counters to monitor traffic levels.
If a significant, or long-term loss, of performance is seen, detailed investigation should be made.
You are monitoring your Replication Agents.
Regularly purge workflow instances.
Repository size and workflow performance.
See Regular Purging of Workflow Instances.

Backups backups

It is good practice to take backups of:

  • Your software installation - before/after significant changes in the configuration
  • The content held within the repository - regularly

Your company likely has a backup policy that you follow, additional considerations of what and when to back up include the following:

  • how critical the system and data is.
  • how often changes are made to either the software or data.
  • volume of data; capacity can occasionally be an issue, as can the time to perform the backup.
  • whether your backup can be made while users are online; and if possible, what is the performance impact.
  • the geographical distribution of users; that is, when is the best time to back up (to minimize impact)?
  • your disaster recovery policy; are there guidelines on where the backup data has to be stored (for example, offsite and specific medium).

Often a full backup is taken at regular intervals (for example, daily, weekly, or monthly), with incremental backups in between (for example, hourly, daily, or weekly).

When implementing back ups of your production instances, tests must be made to ensure that you can successfully restore the backup.
Without this testing, the backup is potentially useless (worst case scenario).
For more information about backup performances, read the Back up Performance section.

Backing up your software installation backing-up-your-software-installation

After installation, or significant changes in the configuration, create a backup of your software installation.

To do accomplish this task, back up your entire repository and then:

  1. Stop AEM.
  2. Back up the entire <cq-installation-dir> from your file system.
If you are operating a third-party application server, additional folders may be in a different location and must be backed up, too. See How to install AEM with an Application Server for information about installing application servers.
Incremental backup of the file data store is supported; when using incremental backup for other components (such as Lucene index), ensure that deleted files are also marked as deleted in the backup.
Disk mirroring can also be used as a backup mechanism.

Backing up your repository backing-up-your-repository

The Backup and Restore section of the CRX documentation covers all issues related to backups of the CRX repository.

For full details of making an online “hot” backup, see Creating an Online Backup.

Version Purging version-purging

The Purge Versions tool is intended for purging the versions of a node or a hierarchy of nodes in your repository. Its primary purpose is to help you reduce the size of your repository by removing old versions of your nodes.

This section deals with maintenance operations related to the versioning feature of AEM. The Purge Version tool is intended for purging the versions of a node or a hierarchy of nodes in your repository. Its primary purpose is to help you reduce the size of your repository by removing old versions of your nodes.

Overview overview

The Purge Versions tool is available as a weekly maintenance task. Before using for the first time, it must be added, then configured. After that it can be run on request, or on a weekly basis.

Purging Versions of a Web Site purging-versions-of-a-web-site

To purge versions of a web site, proceed as follows:

  1. Navigate to the Tools console, select Operation, Maintenance, then Weekly Maintenance Window.

  2. Select + Add from the top toolbar.

    Add Version Purge

  3. Select Version Purge from the drop-down list in the Add New Task dialog. Then Save.

    Add Version Purge

  4. The Version Purge task is added. Use the card actions to:

    • Select - reveals additional actions in the top toolbar
    • Run - to run the configured purge immediately
    • Configure - to configure the weekly purge task

    Version Purge Actions

  5. Select the Configure action to open the Web Console for Day CQ WCM Version Purge Task, where you can configure:

    Version Purge Configuration

    • Purge paths
      Set the start path of the content to be purged; for example, /content/wknd.

      note caution
      Adobe recommends that you define multiple paths for each of your websites.
      Defining a path with too many children can significantly lengthen the time to perform the purge.
    • Purge versions recursively

      • Unselect if you want to only purge the node defined by your path.
      • Select if you want to purge the node defined by your path and its descendants.
    • Maximum number of versions
      Set the maximum number of versions (for each node) that you want to keep. Leave empty to not use this setting.

    • Minimum number of versions
      Set the minimum number of versions (for each node) that you want to keep. Leave empty to not use this setting.

    • Maximum version age
      Set the maximum version age in days (for each node) that you want to keep. Leave empty to not use this setting.

    Then Save.

  6. Navigate/return to the Weekly Maintenance Window window and select Run to launch the process immediately.

You can use the Classic UI dialog to perform a Dry Run of your configuration:
  • http://localhost:4502/etc/versioning/purge.html
Purged nodes cannot be reverted without restoring the repository. Take care of your configuration by always perform a dry run before purging.

Dry Run - Analyzing the Console analyzing-the-console

The classic UI provides a Dry Run option from:

  • http://localhost:4502/etc/versioning/purge.html

The process lists all the nodes that have been processed. During the process, a node can have one of the following statuses:

  • ignore (not versionnable): the node does not support versioning and is ignored during the process.

  • ignore (no version): the node does not have any version and is ignored during the process.

  • retained: the node is not purged.

  • purged: the node is purged.

Moreover the console provides useful information about the versions:

  • V 1.0: the version number.

  • V 1.0.1*: the star indicates that the version is the current (base) version and cannot be purged.

  • Thu Mar 15 2012 08:37:32 GMT+0100: the date of the version.

In the next example:

  • The Shirts versions are purged because their version age is greater than two days.
  • The Tonga Fashions! versions are purged because their number of versions is greater than 5.


Working with Audit Records and Log Files working-with-audit-records-and-log-files

Auditing records and log files relating to Adobe Experience Manager (AEM) can be found at various locations. The following is provided to give you an overview of what you can find and where you can find it.

Working with Logs working-with-logs

AEM WCM records detailed logs. After you unpack and start Quickstart, you can find logs in:

  • <cq-installation-dir>/crx-quickstart/logs/

  • <cq-installation-dir>/crx-quickstart/repository/

Log file rotation log-file-rotation

Log file rotation refers to the process that limits the growth of the file by creating a file periodically. In AEM, a log file called error.log is rotated once a day according to the given rules:

  • The error.log file is renamed according to the pattern {original_filename}.yyyy-MM-dd. For example, on July 2010 11th, the current log file is renamed error.log-2010-07-10, then a new error.log is created.

  • Previous log files are not deleted, so it is your responsibility to clean old log files periodically to limit the disk usage.

If you upgrade your AEM installation, any existing log file that is no longer used by AEM remains on the disk. You can remove them without risk. All new log entries are written in the new log files.

Finding the Log Files finding-the-log-files

Various log files are held on the file server where you installed AEM:

  • <cq-installation-dir>/crx-quickstart/logs

    • access.log
      All access requests to the AEM WCM, and the repository, are registered here.

    • audit.log
      Moderation actions are registered here.

    • error.log
      Error messages (of varying levels of severity) are registered here.

    • ImageServer-<PortId>-yyyy>-<mm>-<dd>.log
      This log is only used if Dynamic Media is enabled. It provides statistics and analytical information used for analyzing behavior of the internal ImageServer process.

    • request.log
      Each access request is registered here together with the response.

    • s7access-<yyyy>-<mm>-<dd>.log
      This log is only used if Dynamic Media is enabled. The s7access log records each request made to Dynamic Media through /is/image and /is/content.

    • stderr.log
      Holds error messages, again of varying levels of severity, generated during startup. By default the log level is set to Warning ( WARN)

    • stdout.log
      Holds logging messages indicating events during startup.

    • upgrade.log
      Provides a log of all upgrade operations that runs from the and com.adobe.cq.upgradesexecutor packages.

  • <cq-installation-dir>/crx-quickstart/repository/segmentstore

    • journal.log
      Revision journaling information.
The ImageServer and s7access logs are not included in the **Download Full **package that is generated from the **system/console/status-Bundlelist **page. For support purposes, if you have Dynamic Media issues, append the ImageServer and s7access logs when you contact Customer Support.

Activating the DEBUG Log Level activating-the-debug-log-level

The default log level (Apache Sling Logging Configuration) is Information, so debug messages are not logged.

To activate the debug log level for a Logger, set the property to debug in the repository. For example, on /libs/sling/config/ to configure the global Apache Sling Logging.

Do not leave the log at the debug log level longer than necessary, because it generates numerous log entries, consuming resources.

A line in the debug file usually starts with DEBUG, then provides the log level, the installer action, and the log message. For example:

DEBUG 3 WebApp Panel: WebApp successfully deployed

The log levels are as follows:

Fatal error
The action has failed, and the installer cannot proceed.
The action has failed. The installation proceeds, but a part of AEM WCM was not installed correctly and does not work.
The action has succeeded but encountered problems. AEM WCM may or may not work correctly.
The action has succeeded.

Create a Custom Log File create-a-custom-log-file

When working with Adobe Experience Manager, there are several methods of managing the configuration settings for such services; see Configuring OSGi for more details and the recommended practices.

In certain circumstances, you may want to create a custom log file with a different log level. In the repository, do the following:

  1. If not existing, create a configuration folder ( sling:Folder) for your project /apps/<project-name>/config.

  2. Under /apps/<project-name>/config, create a node for the new Apache Sling Logging Logger Configuration:

    • Name:<identifier>

      Where <identifier> is replaced by free text that you (must) enter to identify the instance (you cannot omit this information).

      For example,

    • Type: sling:OsgiConfig

    note note
    Although not a technical requirement, it is advisable to make <identifier> unique.
  3. Set the following properties on this node:

    • Name:

      Type: String

      Value: specify the Log File; for example, logs/myLogFile.log

    • Name:

      Type: String[] (String + Multi)

      Value: specify the OSGi services for which the Logger is to log messages; for example, all the following:

      • org.apache.felix
    • Name:

      Type: String

      Value: specify the log level required ( debug, info, warn, or error); for example, debug

    • Configure the other parameters as required:

      • Name:

        Type: String

        Value: specify the pattern of the log message as required; for example,

        {0,date,dd.MM.yyyy HH:mm:ss.SSS} *{4}* [{2}] {3} {5}

    note note
    NOTE supports up to six arguments.
    {0} The timestamp of type java.util.Date
    {1} the log marker
    {2} the name of the current thread
    {3} the name of the logger
    {4} the log level
    {5} the log message
    If the log call includes a Throwable, the stacktrace is appended to the message.
    note caution
    CAUTION must have a value.
    note note
    Log writer paths are relative to the crx-quickstart location.
    Therefore, a log file specified as:
    writes to:
    And a log file specified as:
    writes to a directory:
    (that is, next to <cq-installation-dir>/crx-quickstart/)
  4. This step is only necessary when a new Writer is required (that is, with a configuration that is different to the default Writer).

    note caution
    A new Logging Writer Configuration is only required when the existing default is not suitable.
    If no explicit Writer is configured, the system automatically generates an implicit Writer based on the default.

    Under /apps/<project-name>/config, create a node for the new Apache Sling Logging Writer Configuration:

    • Name:<identifier> (a Writer)

      As with the Logger, <identifier> is replaced by free text that you (must) enter to identify the instance (you cannot omit this information). For example,

    • Type: sling:OsgiConfig

    note note
    Although not a technical requirement, it is advisable to make <identifier> unique.

    Set the following properties on this node:

    • Name:

      Type: String

      Value: specify the Log File so that it matches the file specified in the Logger;

      for this example, ../logs/myLogFile.log.

    • Configure the other parameters as required:

      • Name:

        Type: Long

        Value: specify the number of log files that you want kept; for example, 5

      • Name:

        Type: String

        Value: specify as required to control file rotation by size/date; for example, '.'yyyy-MM-dd

    note note
    NOTE controls the rotation of the log file by setting either:
    • a maximum file size
    • a time/date schedule
    to indicate when a new file is created (and the existing file renamed according to the name pattern).
    • A size limit can be specified with a number. If no size indicator is given, then it is taken as the number of bytes, or you can add one of the size indicators - KB, MB, or GB (case is ignored).
    • A time/date schedule can be specified as a java.util.SimpleDateFormat pattern. It defines the time period after which the file is rotated. Also, the suffix appended to the rotated file (for identification).
    The default is '.'yyyy-MM-dd (for daily log rotation).
    For example, at midnight January 20, 2010 (or when the first log message after this date occurs to be precise), …/logs/error.log is renamed to …/logs/error.log.2010-01-20. Logging for January 21 is output to (a new and empty) …/logs/error.log until it is rolled over at the next change of day.
    table 0-row-2 1-row-2 2-row-2 3-row-2 4-row-2 5-row-2
    '.'yyyy-MM Rotation at the beginning of each month
    '.'yyyy-ww Rotation at the first day of each week (depends on the locale).
    '.'yyyy-MM-dd Rotation at midnight each day.
    '.'yyyy-MM-dd-a Rotation at midnight and midday of each day.
    '.'yyyy-MM-dd-HH Rotation at the top of every hour.
    '.'yyyy-MM-dd-HH-mm Rotation at the beginning of every minute.
    Note: When specifying a time/date:
    1. You should “escape” literal text within a pair of single quotes (’ ');

      Avoids certain characters from being interpreted as pattern letters.

    2. Only use characters allowed for a valid file name anywhere in the option.

  5. Read your new log file with your chosen tool.

    The log file created by this example is ../crx-quickstart/logs/myLogFile.log.

The Felix Console also provides information about Sling Log Support at ../system/console/slinglog; for example, https://localhost:4502/system/console/slinglog.

Finding the Audit Records finding-the-audit-records

Audit records are held to provide a record of who did what and when. Different audit records are generated for both AEM WCM and OSGi events.

AEM WCM Audit records shown when Page Authoring aem-wcm-audit-records-shown-when-page-authoring

  1. Open a page.

  2. From the sidekick you can select the tab with the lock icon, then double-click Audit Log…

  3. A new window opens showing the list of audit records for the current page.


  4. Click OK when you want to close the window.

AEM WCM Auditing records within the repository aem-wcm-auditing-records-within-the-repository

Within the /var/audit folder, audit records are held according to the resource. You can drill down until you see individual records and the information that they contain.

These entries hold the same information as shown when editing a page.

OSGi Audit records from the Web Console osgi-audit-records-from-the-web-console

OSGi events also generate audit records which can be seen from the Configuration Status tab > Log Files tab in the AEM Web Console:


Monitoring Your Replication Agents monitoring-your-replication-agents

You can monitor your replication queues to detect when a queue is either down or blocked - which might in turn indicate a problem with a publishing instance or external system:

  • are all required queues enabled?

  • are any disabled queues still required?

  • all enabled queues should have the status idle or active, which indicate normal operation; no queues should be blocked, which is often a sign of problems on the receivers side.

  • if the size of the queue grows over time, it can indicate a blocked queue.

To monitor a replication agent:

  1. Access the Tools tab in AEM.

  2. Click Replication.

  3. Double-click the link to agents for the appropriate environment (either the left or the right pane); for example, Agents on author.

    The resulting window shows an overview of all your replication agents for the author environment, including their target and status.

  4. Click the appropriate agent name (which is a link) to show detailed information on that agent:


    Here you can:

    • See whether the agent is enabled.
    • See the target of any replications.
    • See whether the replication queue is active (enabled).
    • See whether there are any items in the queue.
    • Refresh or Clear to update the display of queue entries. Doing so helps you to see items that enter and leave the queue.
    • View Log to access the log of any actions by the replication agent.
    • Test Connection to the target instance.
    • Force Retry on any queue items, if necessary.
    note caution
    Do not use the “Test Connection” link for the Reverse Replication Outbox on a publish instance.
    If a replication test is performed for an Outbox queue, any items that are older than the test replication are reprocessed with every reverse replication.
    If such items exist in a queue, they can be found with the following XPath JCR query and should be removed.

Again you can develop a solution to detect all replication agents (located under /etc/replication/author or /etc/replication/publish), then check the status of the agent ( enabled, disabled) and the underlying queue ( active, idle, blocked).

Monitoring Performance monitoring-performance

Performance Optimization is an interactive process which receives focus during development. After deployment, it is reviewed after specific intervals or events.

Methods used while collecting information for optimization can also be used for ongoing monitoring.

Specific configurations available to improve performance can also be checked.

The following lists common performance issues which occur, together with proposals on how to spot, and counteract them.

To increase capacity…
To reduce volume…
High client CPU usage.
Install a client CPU with higher performance.
Simplify (HTML) layout.
Low server CPU usage.
Upgrade to a faster browser.
Improve client-side cache.
Some clients fast, some slow.
CPU usage low on both servers and clients.
Remove any network bottlenecks.
Improve/optimize the configuration of the client cache.
Browsing locally on the server is (comparatively) fast.
Increase network bandwidth.
Reduce the “weight” of your web pages (for example, fewer images, optimized HTML).
CPU usage on the web-server is high.
Cluster your web-servers.
Reduce the hits per page (visit).
Use a hardware load-balancer.
Server CPU usage is high.
Cluster your AEM instances.
Search for, and eliminate, CPU, and memory hogs (use code review and timing output).
High memory consumption.
Improve caching on all levels.
Low response times.
Optimize templates and components (for example, structure, logic).

Performance issues may stem from various causes that have nothing to do with your website, including temporary slowdowns in connection speed, CPU load, and many more.

It may also impact either all your visitors, or only a subset of them.

All this information must be obtained, sorted, and analyzed before you can either optimize the general performance or solve specific issues.

  • Before you experience a performance issue:

    • collect as much information as possible to build up a good working knowledge of the system under normal circumstances
  • When you experience a performance issue:

    • try to replicate it with one (or preferably more) standard web-browser, on a different client that you know has good general performance and/or on the server itself (if possible)

    • check whether anything (related to the system) has changed within an appropriate time-space, and if any of these changes could have impacted the performance

    • ask questions such as:

      • does the issue only occur at specific times?
      • does the issue only occur on specific pages?
      • are other requests impacted?
    • collect as much information as possible to compare with your knowledge of the system under normal circumstances:

Tools for Monitoring and Analyzing Performance tools-for-monitoring-and-analyzing-performance

The following gives a short overview of some of the tools available for monitoring and analyzing performance.

Some of these tools depend on your operating system.

Used to analyze...
Usage / More information...
Response times and concurrency.
Interpreting the request.log.
Page Loads

Unix/Linux commands to trace system calls and signals. Increase the log level to INFO.

Analyze the number of page loads per request, and which pages.

Thread dumps
Observe JVM threads. Identify contentions, locks, and long-runners.

Dependent on the operating system:
- Unix/Linux: kill -QUIT <pid>
- Windows (console mode): Ctrl-Break

Analysis tools are also available, such as TDA.

Heap Dumps
Out of Memory issues that cause slow performance.

Add the:
option to the Java™ call that goes to AEM.

See the Options/Flags for JVM Troubleshooting Page.

System calls
Identify timing issues.

Calls to System.currentTimeMillis() or Timing is used to generate timestamps from your code, or by way of HTML-comments.

Note: Implement these things so that they can be activated / deactivated as required; when a system is running smoothly, the overhead of collecting statistics is not needed.

Apache Bench
Identify memory leaks, selectively analyze response time.

basic usage is:

ab -k -n <requests> -c <concurrency> <url>

See Apache Bench and the ab man page for full details.

Search Analysis
Execute search queries offline, identify response time of query, test, and confirm result set.
Load and functional tests.
In-depth CPU and memory profiling.
Java™ Flight Recorder
Java™ Flight Recorder (JFR) is a tool for collecting diagnostic and profiling data about a running Java™ application.
Observe JVM metrics and threads.

Usage: jconsole

See jconsole and Monitoring Performance using JConsole.

Note: With JDK 1.8, JConsole is extensible with plug-ins; for example, Top or TDA (Thread Dump Analyzer).

Java™ VisualVM
Observe JVM metrics, threads, memory, and profiling.

Usage: visualvm or visualvm

See visualvm and Monitoring Performance using (J)VisualVM.

Note: With JDK 1.8, VisualVM is extensible with plug-ins. VisualVM is discontinued after JDK 9. Use the Java™ Flight Recorder instead.

truss/strace, lsof
In-depth kernel call and process analysis (UNIX®).
Unix/Linux commands.
Timing Statistics
See timing statistics for page rendering.
To see timing statistics for page rendering, you can use Ctrl-Shift-U together with ?debugClientLibs=true set in the URL.
CPU and memory profiling tool
Used when analyzing slow requests during development.
For example, YourKit. or the Java™ Flight Recorder.
Information Collection
The ongoing state of your installation.
Knowing as much as possible about your installation can also help you track down what might have caused a change in performance, and whether these changes are justified. Collect these metrics at regular intervals so you can easily see significant changes.

Interpreting the request.log interpreting-the-request-log

This file registers basic information about every request made to AEM. From this, valuable conclusions can be extracted.

The request.log offers a built-in way to get a look at how long requests take. For development purposes, it is useful to tail -f the request.log and watch for slow response times. To analyze a bigger request.log, Adobe recommends the use of rlog.jar which lets you sort and filter for response times.

Adobe recommends isolating the “slow” pages from the request.log, then individually tuning them for a better performance. Include performance metrics per component or using a performance profiling tool such as [yourkit](

Monitoring traffic on your website monitoring-traffic-on-your-website

The request log registers each request made, together with the response made:

09:43:41 [66] -> GET /author/y.html HTTP/1.1
09:43:41 [66] <- 200 text/html 797ms

By totaling all the GET entries within specific periods (for example, over various 24-hour periods), you can make statements about the average traffic on your website.

Monitoring response times with the request.log monitoring-response-times-with-the-request-log

A good starting point for performance analysis is the request log:


The log looks as follows (the lines are shortened for simplicity):

31/Mar/2009:11:32:57 +0200 [379] -> GET /path/x HTTP/1.1
31/Mar/2009:11:32:57 +0200 [379] <- 200 text/html 33ms
31/Mar/2009:11:33:17 +0200 [380] -> GET /path/y HTTP/1.1
31/Mar/2009:11:33:17 +0200 [380] <- 200 application/json 39ms

This log has one line per request or response:

  • The date at which each request or response was made.

  • The number of the request, in square brackets. This number matches for the request and the response.

  • An arrow indicating whether it is a request (arrow pointing to the right) or a response (arrow to the left).

  • For requests, the line contains:

    • the method (typically, GET, HEAD, or POST)
    • the requested page
    • the protocol
  • For responses, the line contains:

    • the status code (200 means “success”, 404 means “page not found”
    • the MIME type
    • the response time

Using small scripts, you can extract the required information from the log file and assemble the statistics you want. From these statistics, you can see which pages or types of pages are slow, and if the overall performance is satisfactory.

Monitoring search response times with the request.log monitoring-search-response-times-with-the-request-log

Search requests are also registered in the log file:

31/Mar/2009:11:35:34 +0200 [338] -> GET /author/playground/en/tools/search.html?query=dilbert&size=5&dispenc=utf-8 HTTP/1.1
31/Mar/2009:11:35:34 +0200 [338] <- 200 text/html 1562ms

So, as above, you can use scripts to extract the relevant information and build up statistics.

However, after you have determined the response time, analyze why the request is taking the time it does, and what can be done to improve the response.

Monitoring the number and impact of concurrent users monitoring-the-number-and-impact-of-concurrent-users

Again the request.log can be used to monitor concurrency and the system’s reaction to it.

Tests must be made to determine how many concurrent users the system can handle before a negative impact is seen. Again scripts can be used to extract results from the log file:

  • monitor how many requests are made within a specific time span, such as one minute.
  • test the effects of a specific number of users all making the same requests at (as close as possible) the same time. For example, 30 users clicking Save at the same time.
31/Mar/2009:11:45:29 +0200 [333] -> GET /author/libs/Personalize/content/statics.close.gif HTTP/1.1
31/Mar/2009:11:45:29 +0200 [334] -> GET /author/libs/Personalize/content/statics.detach.gif HTTP/1.1
31/Mar/2009:11:45:30 +0200 [335] -> GET /author/libs/CFC/content/imgs/logo.rZMNURccynWcTpCxyuBNiTCoiBMmw000.default.gif HTTP/1.1
31/Mar/2009:11:45:32 +0200 [335] <- 304 text/html 0ms
31/Mar/2009:11:45:33 +0200 [334] <- 200 image/gif 31ms
31/Mar/2009:11:45:38 +0200 [333] <- 200 image/gif 31ms
31/Mar/2009:11:45:42 +0200 [336] -> GET /author/libs/CFC/content/imgs/logo.rZMNURccynWcTZRXunQbbQtvuuCMbRRBuWXz0000.default.gif HTTP/1.1
31/Mar/2009:11:45:43 +0200 [337] -> GET /author/titlebar_bg.gif HTTP/1.1
31/Mar/2009:11:45:43 +0200 [336] <- 304 text/html 0ms
31/Mar/2009:11:45:44 +0200 [337] <- 304 text/html 0ms

Using rlog.jar to find requests with long duration times using-rlog-jar-to-find-requests-with-long-duration-times

AEM includes various helper tools in the following:

One of these tools, rlog.jar, can be used to quickly sort request.log so that requests are displayed by duration, from longest to shortest time.

The following command shows the possible arguments:

$java -jar rlog.jar
Request Log Analyzer Version 21584 Copyright 2005 Day Management AG
  java -jar rlog.jar [options] <filename>
  -h               Prints this usage.
  -n <maxResults>  Limits output to <maxResults> lines.
  -m <maxRequests> Limits input to <maxRequest> requests.
  -xdev            Exclude POST request to CRXDE.

For example, you can run it specifying request.log file as a parameter and show the ten first requests that have the longest duration:

$ java -jar ../opt/helpers/rlog.jar -n 10 request.log
*Info * Parsed 464 requests.
*Info * Time for parsing: 22ms
*Info * Time for sorting: 2ms
*Info * Total Memory: 1mb
*Info * Free Memory: 1mb
*Info * Used Memory: 0mb
     18051ms 31/Mar/2009:11:15:34 +0200 200 GET /content/geometrixx/en/company.html text/ html
      2198ms 31/Mar/2009:11:15:20 +0200 200 GET /libs/cq/widgets.js application/x-javascript
      1981ms 31/Mar/2009:11:15:11 +0200 200 GET /libs/wcm/content/welcome.html text/html
      1973ms 31/Mar/2009:11:15:52 +0200 200 GET /content/campaigns/geometrixx.teasers..html text/html
      1883ms 31/Mar/2009:11:15:20 +0200 200 GET /libs/security/cq-security.js application/x-javascript
      1876ms 31/Mar/2009:11:15:20 +0200 200 GET /libs/tagging/widgets.js application/x-javascript
      1869ms 31/Mar/2009:11:15:20 +0200 200 GET /libs/tagging/widgets/themes/default.js application/x-javascript
      1729ms 30/Mar/2009:16:45:56 +0200 200 GET /libs/wcm/content/welcome.html text/html; charset=utf-8
      1510ms 31/Mar/2009:11:15:34 +0200 200 GET /bin/wcm/contentfinder/asset/view.json/ content/dam?_dc=1238490934657&query=&mimeType=image&_charset_=utf-8 application/json
      1462ms 30/Mar/2009:17:23:08 +0200 200 GET /libs/wcm/content/welcome.html text/html; charset=utf-8

Concatenate the individual request.log files if you must do this operation on a large data sample.

Apache Bench apache-bench

To minimize the impact of special cases (such as garbage collection), it is recommended to use a tool such as apachebench (for example, ab for further documentation) to help identify memory leaks and selectively analyze response time.

Apache Bench can be used in the following way:

$ ab -c 5 -k -n 1000 "https://localhost:4503/content/geometrixx/en/company.html"
This is ApacheBench, Version 2.3 <$Revision: 655654 $>
Copyright 1996 Adam Twiss, Zeus Technology Ltd,
Licensed to The Apache Software Foundation,

Benchmarking localhost (be patient)
Completed 100 requests
Completed 200 requests
Completed 300 requests
Completed 400 requests
Completed 500 requests
Completed 600 requests
Completed 700 requests
Completed 800 requests
Completed 900 requests
Completed 1000 requests
Finished 1000 requests

Server Software: Day-Servlet-Engine/4.1.52
Server Hostname: localhost
Server Port: 4503

Document Path: /content/geometrixx/en/company.html
Document Length: 24127 bytes

Concurrency Level: 5
Time taken for tests: 69.766 seconds
Complete requests: 1000
Failed requests: 998
(Connect: 0, Receive: 0, Length: 998, Exceptions: 0)
Write errors: 0
Keep-Alive requests: 0
Total transferred: 24160923 bytes
HTML transferred: 24010923 bytes
Requests per second: 14.33 /sec (mean)
Time per request: 348.828 [ms] (mean)
Time per request: 69.766 [ms] (mean, across all concurrent requests)
Transfer rate: 338.20 [Kbytes/sec] received

Connection Times (ms)
min mean[+/-sd] median max
Connect: 0 1 3.9 0 58
Processing: 138 347 568.5 282 8106
Waiting: 137 344 568.1 281 8106
Total: 139 348 568.4 283 8106

Percentage of the requests served within a certain time (ms)
50% 283
66% 323
75% 356
80% 374
90% 439
95% 512
98% 1047
99% 1132
100% 8106 (longest request)

The numbers above are taken from a standard MAcBook Pro laptop (mid 2010) accessing the Geometrixx company page, as included in a default AEM installation. The page is simple, but not optimized for performance.

The apachebench also displays the time per request as the mean, across all concurrent requests; see Time per request: 54.595 [ms] (mean, across all concurrent requests). You can change the value of the concurrency parameter -c (number of multiple requests to perform at a time) to see any effects.

Request Counters request-counters

Information about request traffic (number of requests during a specific time period) gives you an indication of the load on your instance. This information can be extracted from request.log, though using counters automates data collection to let you see:

  • significant differences in activity (that is, differentiate between “many requests” and “low activity”
  • when an instance is not being used
  • any restarts (counters are reset to 0)

To automate information collection, you can also install a RequestFilter to increment a counter on every request. Multiple counters can be used for different time periods.

The information gathered can be used to indicate:

  • significant changes in activity
  • a redundant instance
  • any restarts (counter reset to 0)

HTML Comments html-comments

It is recommended that every project includes html comments for server performance. Many good public examples can be found. Select a page, open the page source for viewing, and scroll to the bottom. Code such as the following can be seen:

        Page took 58 milliseconds to be rendered by server

Monitoring Performance using JConsole monitoring-performance-using-jconsole

The tool command jconsole is available with the JDK.

  1. Start your AEM instance.

  2. Run jconsole.

  3. Select your AEM instance and Connect.

  4. From within the Local application, double-click; the Overview is shown as default:


    Now you can select other options.

Monitoring Performance using (J)VisualVM monitoring-performance-using-j-visualvm

For JDK 6-8, the tool command visualvm is available. After you have installed a JDK, you can do the following:

  1. Start your AEM instance.

    note note
    If using Java™ 5, you can add the argument to the Java™ command line that starts your JVM. JMX is enabled per default with Java™ 6.
  2. Run either:

    • jvisualvm: in the JDK 1.6 bin folder (tested version)
    • visualvm: can be downloaded from VisualVM (bleeding edge version)
  3. From within the Local application, double-click The Overview is shown as the default:


    Now you can select other options, including Monitor:


You can use this tool to generate thread dumps and memory head dumps. This information is often requested by the technical support team.

Information Collection information-collection

Knowing as much as possible about your installation can help you track down what might have caused a change in performance, and whether these changes are justified. Collect these metrics at regular intervals so you can easily see significant changes.

The following information can be useful:

How many authors are working with the system? how-many-authors-are-working-with-the-system

To see the number of authors that have used the system since installation use the command line:

cd <cq-installation-dir>/crx-quickstart/logs
cut -d " " -f 3 access.log | sort -u | wc -l

To see the number of authors working on a given date:

grep "<date>" access.log | cut -d " " -f 3 | sort -u | wc -l

What is the average number of page activations per day? what-is-the-average-number-of-page-activations-per-day

To see the total number of page activations since server installation, use a repository query; by way of CRXDE - Tools - Query:

  • Type XPath

  • Path /

  • Query //element(*, cq:AuditEvent)[@cq:type='Activate']

Then calculate the number of days that have elapsed since installation to calculate the average.

How many pages do you currently maintain on this system? how-many-pages-do-you-currently-maintain-on-this-system

To see the number of pages currently on the server use a repository query; via CRXDE - Tools - Query:

  • Type XPath

  • Path /

  • Query //element(*, cq:Page)

If you use MSM, what is the average number of rollouts per month? if-you-use-msm-what-is-the-average-number-of-rollouts-per-month

To determine the total number of rollouts since installation, use a repository query; by way of CRXDE - Tools - Query:

  • Type XPath

  • Path /

  • Query //element(*, cq:AuditEvent)[@cq:type='PageRolledOut']

Calculate the number of months that have elapsed since installation to calculate the average.

What is the average number of Live Copies per month? what-is-the-average-number-of-live-copies-per-month

To determine the total number of Live Copies made since installation use a repository query; via CRXDE - Tools - Query:

  • Type XPath

  • Path /

  • Query //element(*, cq:LiveSyncConfig)

Again use the number of months that have elapsed since installation to calculate the average.

If you use AEM Assets, how many assets do you currently maintain in Assets? if-you-use-aem-assets-how-many-assets-do-you-currently-maintain-in-assets

To see how many DAM assets you currently maintain, use a repository query; via CRXDE - Tools - Query:

  • Type XPath
  • Path /
  • Query /jcr:root/content/dam//element(*, dam:Asset)

What is the average size of the assets? what-is-the-average-size-of-the-assets

To determine the total size of the /var/dam folder:

  1. Use WebDAV to map the repository to the local file system.

  2. Use the command line:

    code language-shell
    cd /Volumes/localhost/var
    du -sh dam/

    To get the average size, divide the global size by the total number of assets in /var/dam (obtained above).

How many templates are currently used? how-many-templates-are-currently-used

To see the number of templates currently on the server use a repository query; via CRXDE - Tools - Query:

  • Type XPath
  • Path /
  • Query //element(*, cq:Template)

How many components are currently used? how-many-components-are-currently-used

To see the number of components currently on the server use a repository query; via CRXDE - Tools - Query:

  • Type XPath
  • Path /
  • Query //element(*, cq:Component)

How many requests per hour do you have on the author system at peak time? how-many-requests-per-hour-do-you-have-on-the-author-system-at-peak-time

To determine the requests per hour that you have on the author system at peak time:

  1. To determine the total number of requests since installation, use the command line:

    code language-shell
    cd <cq-installation-dir>/crx-quickstart/logs
    grep -R "\->" request.log | wc -l
  2. To determine the start and end dates:

    code language-shell
    vim request.log
    G / 1G: for the last/first lines

    Use these values to calculate the number of hours that have elapsed since installation, then the average number of requests per hour.

How many requests per hour do you have on the publish system at peak time? how-many-requests-per-hour-do-you-have-on-the-publish-system-at-peak-time

Repeat the above procedure on your publish instance.

Analyzing Specific Scenarios analyzing-specific-scenarios

The following is a list of suggestions on what to check if you start experiencing certain performance problems. The list is not (unfortunately) fully comprehensive.

CPU at 100% cpu-at

If the CPU of your system is constantly running at 100%, see the following:

Out of Memory out-of-memory

Although such errors should be detected during Development and Testing, certain scenarios can slip through.

If your system is running out of memory, this issue can be seen in various ways, including performance degradation and error messages including the subtext:


In these cases check:

Disk I/O disk-i-o

If your system is either running out of diskspace, or you notice disk thrashing, see:

Regular Performance Degradation regular-performance-degradation

If you see the performance of your instance deteriorating after each reboot (sometimes a week or later), then the following can be checked:

JVM Tuning jvm-tuning

The Java™ Virtual Machine (JVM) has improved in respect to tuning (especially since Java™ 7). As such, specifying a reasonable fixed JVM size and using the defaults is often suitable.

If the default settings are not suitable, then it is important to establish a method to monitor and assess GC performance. Do so before attempting to tune the JVM. This process can involve monitoring factors including, heap size, algorithm, and other aspects.

Some common choices are:

  • VerboseGC:

    code language-none
    -verbose:gc \
     -Xloggc:$LOGS/verbosegc.log \
     -XX:+PrintGCDetails \

The resulting log can be ingested by a GC visualizer such as:


Or JConsole:

  • These settings are for a “wide open” JMX connection:

    code language-none \ \ \
  • Then connect to the JVM with the JConsole; see the following:

You can see how much memory is being used, what GC algorithms are being used, how long they take to run, and what effect this process has on your application performance. Without it, tuning is just “randomly twiddling knobs”.

For Oracle’s VM, there is also information at: