Personalization syntax

Personalization in Journey Optimizer is based on the templating syntax called Handlebars.
For a complete description of the Handlebars syntax, refer to HandlebarsJS documentation.

It uses a template and an input object to generate HTML or other text formats. Handlebars templates look like regular text with embedded Handlebars expressions.

Simple expression sample:



  • profile is a namespace.
  • is a token composed by attributes. The attributes structure is defined in an Adobe Experience Platform XDM Schema. Learn more.

Syntax general rules

Identifiers may be any unicode character except for the following:

Whitespace ! " # % & ' ( ) * + , . / ; < = > @ [ \ ] ^ ` { | } ~

The syntax is case sensitive.

The words true, false, null and undefined are only allowed in the first part of a path expression.

In Handlebars, the values returned by the {{expression}} are HTML-escaped. If the expression contains &, then the returned HTML-escaped output is generated as &amp;. If you don’t want Handlebars to escape a value, use the “triple-stash”.


This namespace allows you to reference all the attributes defined in the profile schema described in Adobe Experience Platform Data Model (XDM) documentation.

The attributes need to be defined in the schema before being referenced in a Journey Optimizer personalization block.


Learn how to leverage profile attributes in conditions in this section.

Sample references:









Learn how to leverage profile attributes in conditions in this section.


To learn more about segmentation and segmentation service, refer to this section.


This namespace allows you to reference existing offers decisions.
To reference an offer you need to declare a path with the different information that define an offer.

This path has the following structure:

offers.Type.[Placement Id].[Activity Id].Attribute


  • offers identifies the path expression belonging to offer namespace
  • Type determines the type of offer representation. Possible values are: image, html and text
  • Placement Id and Activity Id are placement and activity identifiers
  • Attributes are offer specific attributes which depend on the offer type. Example: deliveryUrl for images

For more information on Decisions API and on Offers Representation, refer to this page

All the references are validated against Offers Schema with a validation mechanism described in this page

Sample references:

  • Location where the image is hosted:


  • Target URL when you click on the image:


  • Text content of the offer coming from the decisioning engine:


  • HTML content of the offer coming from the decisioning engine:



A Handlebars helper is a simple identifier that may be followed by parameters.
Each parameter is a Handlebars expression. These helpers can be accessed from any context in a template.

These block helpers are identified by a # preceding the helper name and require a matching closing /, of the same name.
Blocks are expressions that have a block opening ({{# }}) and closing ({{/}}).


Helper functions are detailed in this section.

Literal types

Adobe Journey Optimizer supports the following literal types:

Literal Definition
String A data type comprised of characters surrounded by double quotes.
Examples: "prospect", "jobs", "articles"
Boolean A data type that is either true or false.
Integer A data type representing a whole number. It can be positive, negative, or zero.
Examples: -201, 0, 412
Array A data type that is comprised as a group of other literal values. It uses square brackets to group and commas to delimit between different values.
Note: You cannot directly access properties of items within an array.
Examples: [1, 4, 7], ["US", "FR"]

The use of xEvent variable is not available in personalization expressions. Any reference to xEvent will result in validation failures.

URL Personalization

Journey Optimizer allows you to personalize one or several URLs in your message by adding personalization fields to them. To do this:

  • Create a link in your Email or Push content. To know more about link creation, refer to this page.
  • Click on the personalization icon. This icon is available for these specific types of links: External link, Unsubscription link and Opt-Out.


In the expression editor, when you edit a personnalized URL, helper functions and segments membership are disabled for security reasons.

Sample personalized URLs


Spaces are not supported in the personalization tokens used inside urls.

On this page