This topic provides a high-level overview of how data is migrated from Magento 1 to Magento 2 using the Data Migration Tool.
The Data Migration Tool is a command-line interface (CLI) tool used for transferring data from Magento 1 to Magento 2. The Tool verifies consistency between Magento 1 and 2 database structures (tables and fields), tracks the data transfer progress, creates logs, and runs data verification tests.
The Data Migration Tool splits the migration process into three phases or modes in order to transfer and adapt data from Magento 1.x to Magento 2.x. The three modes are listed here and must be run in this order:
The Data Migration Tool uses a list of steps within each mode to migrate a particular type of data. For example, in the Settings mode, there are two steps used to migrate all the settings data: the Stores step and the Settings step. Details about the specific data that is migrated in each of these steps (and for steps in the other modes), can be found in the Data Migration Tool Technical Specification.
Within each step are three stages that are always executed in this order to ensure that the data gets properly migrated:
At the lowest level of the migration processes are the XML map files. The Data Migration Tool uses map files within the stages of a step to transform different data structures between the Magento 1.x and 2.x tables.
For example, when you transform data from a Magento Open Source 188.8.131.52 database to Magento Open Source 2.x.x, the map file accounts for the fact that a table was renamed, and renames it accordingly in the destination database. If there are no differences in data structure or data format, the Data Migration Tool transfers it as-is, including data from tables created by extensions, to the Magento 2 database.
When differences are not declared in map files, then the Data Migration Tool displays an error and does not start.
Mapping files are discussed in more detail in [Data Migration Tool Technical Specification].
Data Migration Tool Technical Specification
We are pleased you are considering moving from the world’s #1 commerce platform — Magento 1.x — to the platform of the future, Magento 2. We are excited to share the details about this process, which we refer to as migration.
Magento 2 migration involves four components: data, extensions and custom code, themes, and customizations.
We have developed the Magento 2 Data Migration Tool to help you efficiently move all of your products, customers, and order data, store configurations, promotions, and more to Magento 2. This guide provides information on the tool and best practices for using it to migrate your data.
We have been working hard with the development community to help you use your Magento 1 extensions in Magento 2. Now we are proud to present the Commerce Marketplace, where you can download or purchase the latest versions of your favorite extensions.
More information on developing extensions for Magento 2 is available in the PHP Developer Guide.
Magento 2 uses new approaches and technologies that give merchants an unmatched ability to create innovative shopping experiences and scale to new levels. To take advantage of these advances, developers must make changes to their themes and customizations. Documentation is available online for creating Magento 2 themes, layouts, and customizations.
Just like an upgrade between 1.x versions (for example, from v1.12 to v1.14), the level of effort to migrate from Magento 1 to Magento 2 depends upon how you have built your site and its level of customization.
However, we are constantly improving the Data Migration Tool (see the Changelog for more details); so the migration efforts are continuously decreasing.