Performance optimization review

Even as performance optimization can come from many aspects, there are some general recommendations that should be considered for most scenarios. This includes configuration optimization for infrastructure elements, Adobe Commerce backend configuration, and architecture scalability planning.


The following sections describe recommendations for infrastructure optimizations.

DNS lookups

DNS lookup is the process of finding which IP address that the domain name belongs to. The browser must wait until the DNS lookup is complete before it can download anything for each request. Reducing DNS lookups is important to improve overall page load times.

Content delivery network (CDN)

Use a CDN to optimize asset downloading performance. Adobe Commerce uses Fastly. If have an on-premises implementation of Adobe Commerce, you should also consider adding a CDN layer.

Web latency

The location of the datacenter affects the web latency for frontend users.

Network bandwidth

Sufficient network bandwidth is one of the key requirements for data exchange between web nodes, databases, caching/session servers, and other services.

Because Adobe Commerce effectively leverages caching for high performance, your system can actively exchange data with caching servers like Redis. If Redis is located on a remote server, you must provide a sufficient network channel between web nodes and the caching server to prevent bottlenecks on read/write operations.

Operating system (OS)

Operating system configurations and optimizations are similar for Adobe Commerce when compared to other high-load web applications. As the number of concurrent connections handled by the server increases, the number of available sockets can become fully allocated.

CPU of web nodes

One CPU core can serve around 2-4 Adobe Commerce requests without cache effectively. To determine how many web nodes/cores needed to process all incoming requests without putting them into queue, use the equation:

N[Cores] = (N [Expected Requests] / 2) + N [Expected Cron Processes])

PHP-FPM settings

Optimizing these settings depends on the performance test results for different projects.

  • ByteCode—To get maximum speed out of Adobe Commerce on PHP 7, you must activate the opcache module and configure it properly.

  • APCU—We recommend enabling the PHP APCu extension and configuring Composer to optimize for maximum performance. This extension caches file locations for opened files, which increases performance for Adobe Commerce server calls, including pages, Ajax calls, and endpoints.

  • Realpath_cacheconfiguration—Optimizing realpath_cache allows PHP processes to cache paths to files instead of looking them up each time a page loads.

Web server

Only slight reconfiguration is needed to use nginx as a web server. The nginx web server provides better performance and is easy to configure using the sample configuration file from Adobe Commerce (nginx.conf.sample).

  • Setup PHP-FPM with TCP properly

  • Enable HTTP/2 and Gzip

  • Optimize worker connections


This document does not provide in-depth MySQL tuning instructions because each store and environment is different, but we can make some general recommendations.

The Adobe Commerce database (as well as any other database) is sensitive to the amount of memory available for storing data and indexes. To effectively leverage MySQL data indexation, the amount of memory available should be, at minimum, close to half the size of the data stored in the database.

Optimize the innodb_buffer_pool_instances setting to avoid issues with multiple threads attempting to access the same instance. The value of the max_connections parameter should correlate with the total number of PHP threads configured in the application server. Use the following formula to calculate the best value for innodb-thread-concurrency:

innodb-thread-concurrency = 2 * (NumCPUs+NumDisks)

Session caching

Session caching is a good candidate to configure for a separate instance of Redis. Memory configuration for this cache type should consider the site’s cart abandonment strategy and how long a session should expect to remain in the cache.

Redis should have enough memory allocated to hold all other caches in memory for optimal performance. Block cache will be the key factor in determining the amount of memory to configure. Block cache grows relative to number of pages on a site (number of SKU x number of store views).

Page caching

We highly recommend using Varnish for full page cache on your Adobe Commerce store. The PageCache module is still present in the codebase, but it should be used for development purposes only.

Install Varnish on a separate server in front of the web tier. It should accept all incoming requests and provide cached page copies. To allow Varnish to work effectively with secured pages, an SSL termination proxy can be placed in front of Varnish. Nginx can be used for this purpose.

While Varnish full page cache memory invalidation is effective, we recommend allocating enough memory to Varnish to hold your most popular pages in memory.

Message queues

The Message Queue Framework (MQF) is a system that allows a module to publish messages to queues. It also defines the consumers that receive the messages asynchronously. Adobe Commerce supports RabbitMQ as the messaging broker, which provides a scalable platform for sending and receiving messages.

Performance testing and monitoring

Performance testing before each production release is always recommend to get an estimation of the capability of your ecommerce platform. Keep monitoring after launch and have a scalability and backup plan for handling peak times.


Adobe Commerce on cloud infrastructure already applies all of the above infrastructure and architecture optimizations, except for the DNS lookup because it’s out of scope.


Elasticsearch (or OpenSearch) is required as of Adobe Commerce version 2.4, but it’s also a best practice to enable it for versions prior to 2.4.

Operating models

Apart from the previously mentioned common infrastructure optimization recommendations, there are also approaches to enhance the performance for specific business modes and scales. This document does not provide in-depth tuning instructions for all of them because each scenario is different, but we can provide a few high-level options for your reference.

Headless architecture

We have a separate section dedicated to detailing what headless is and different options. In summary, it separates the storefront layer from the platform itself. It is still the same backend, but Adobe Commerce no longer processes requests directly and instead only supports custom storefronts through the GraphQL API.

Keep Adobe Commerce updated

Adobe Commerce always has better performance when running the newest version. Even if it is not possible to keep Adobe Commerce up-to-date after each new version is released, it is still recommended to upgrade when Adobe Commerce introduces significant performance optimizations.

For example, in 2020, Adobe released an optimization to the Redis layer, fixing a lot of inefficiencies, connection issues, and unnecessary data transfer between Redis and Adobe Commerce. Overall performance between 2.3 and 2.4 is night and day and we saw significant improvements in cart, checkout, concurrent users, just because of the Redis optimization.

Optimize data model

A lot of problems originate from data, including bad data models, data that is not structured properly, and data that is missing an index.

It looks fine if you’re testing a few connections, but seen in production when the real traffic hits and this is where slowness comes in. It’s very important that systems integrators know how to design a data model (especially for product attributes), avoid adding unnecessary attributes, and keep mandatory attributes that affect business logic (such as pricing, stock availability, and search).

For those attributes that do not affect business logic but still need to be present on the storefront, combine them into a few attributes (for example, JSON format).

To optimize platform performance, if business logic is not required on the storefront from data or attributes taken from a PIM or an ERP, there is no need to add that attribute into Adobe Commerce.

Design for scalability

This is important for businesses running campaigns and facing peak times often. For architecture and application design to be easy to scale, this can increase resources during peak times and reduce them after it.

On this page